Monday, May 9th at 11:00 a.m. 17th Century Women: Four British Folkways in America
Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America by David Hackett Fischer Year: 1989
Time Period: 1629-1750 Covered in Albion's Seed by Fischer 1. East Anglia to Massachusetts - The Exodus of the English Puritans (1629-41) 2. The South of England to Virginia - Distressed Cavaliers & Indentured Servants (1642-75) 3. North Midlands to the Delaware - The Friends' Migration (1675-1725) 4. Borderland to the Backcountry - The Flight from North Britain (1717-1775)
Dutch Mennonite PA Rembrant portrait
1. New England English Puritan: Anne Hutchison A New England religious leader and midwife, Anne Hutchinson (1591-1643) was born in England, and later followed Puritan leader John Cotton to the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1634. She brought attention to Cotton’s spirit-centered theology through biweekly meetings, championing him and her brother-in-law John Wheelwright as true Christian ministers.
A ministerial synod cleared Cotton from the charge of heresy, but the radical Hutchinson was punished with banishment by the General Court of Massachusetts and excommunication by the Church of Boston. She was killed in an Indian raid in New York a few years later.
Lady to the left is a Dutch Mennonite immigrant to Colonial Pennsylvania from 17th Century Palatine Germany.
Portrait of a Woman 1642
2. Virginia English Anglican: Temperance Flowerdew
A young woman, Temperance Flowerdew, arrived with 400 ill-fated settlers in the fall of 1609. The following winter, dubbed the "Starving Time," saw over 80 percent of Jamestown succumb to sickness, disease and starvation. Temperance survived this season of hardship but soon returned to England.
By 1619, Temperance returned to Jamestown with her new husband, Governor George Yeardley. After his death in 1627, she married Governor Francis West and remained in Virginia until her death in 1628. Her many years in Virginia as a wife and mother helped fill the gap in Jamestown's early family life.
Margaret Fell Fox
Hannah Callowhill Penn second wife of William Penn
3. Pennsylvania Quakers: Margaret Fell Fox
She was born Margaret Askew in 1614 in Lancashire, England. She was born into the landed gentry, and married in her late teens to an older man, also of the landed gentry, Thomas Fell. Thomas Fell was a highly respected judge, and several times a Member of Parliament. Because he rode a circuit as a judge, he was away for long periods of time.
While he was away, he left their estate at Swarthmoor in the hands of Margaret, in whose rather considerable administrative talents he obviously had great confidence. She often was serving simultaneously as a mother, administrator of a large estate, and coordinator of a scattered network of traveling Friends' ministers. After the death of her first husband, Margaret married George Fox. In the six years that followed until his death, their respective ministries and periods of imprisonment kept them apart most of the time.
Among other things, she also wrote a number of works and lobbied extensively in London on behalf of Friends. By all accounts, she was very effective at all the tasks to which she set her hand. She persevered despite imprisonment and forfeiture of her estate. She died in 1702 at the age of 88, the last surviving leader of the first generation of Friends.
William Penn's grandmother was Alet Pletjes, whose family was from Kempen, Prussia
Quaker Woman Ambrotype 1860s
A Dutch Mennonite immigrant to Pennsylvania from 17th Century Palatine Germany.
For much of American history, the Quaker sect has been an advocate for liberal causes, based on their views of Christianity and equality. From the Sect's founding by George Fox, in 17th century England, through the days of Susan B. Anthony, Quakers were at the forefront of abolitionism and women's rights. Women did more than their share of this advocacy.
Two famous Quaker-born women of later times were Lucretia Mott and Susan B. Anthony. Both of them advocated for abolition, temperance, and women's suffrage. They were active over many decades -- from the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848 to the battles for women's suffrage in the late 1800s.
Susan B. Anthony became most associated with the cause of suffrage, attempting to vote in 1872 and being arrested as a consequence. Undeterred, she encouraged the submission of the "Anthony Amendment" to Congress, which first occurred in 1878. The Amendment stated simply, "The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.", and would finally be passed as the Nineteenth Amendment.
In 1848, Lucretia Mott was a key organizer of the Seneca Falls Convention, which was the first public meeting of American women to call for women's rights. Much of Mott's output came in the form of extemporaneous speech (guided by the Inner Light philosophy of Quakerism), which established her reputation but do not survive into posterity.
She ministered constantly against the evils of slavery and led her family to transition out of the cotton business that it had been employed in. She dealt with mobs who harassed and intimidated her for her abolitionism and her willingness to appear with blacks in public, as equals. After the Civil War, Mott helped establish the American Equal Rights Association, which became one of the central women's suffrage organizations.
Backcountry Scottish Lady
4. Southern Backcountry English Midlands and the Irish, Scots-Irish, Germans and Quakers.
Elizabeth "Betty" Hutchinson, mother of Andrew Jackson, 7th President of the USA
According to a family Bible discovered in North Carolina, his parents were married on October 12, 1727 by Reverend James Craig at the parish church of Dundee, Northern Ireland. Andrew Jackson Sr. married Elizabeth Hutchinson, youngest daughter of Charles Hutchinson and Sarah McConnell at the parish church of Carrickfergus, Northern Ireland on February 7, 1759.
Of this union came three boys, Hugh Jackson, born October 10, 1762 in Antrim, Northern Ireland; Robert Jackson, born October 16, 1765, in Northern Ireland, town not known; and Andrew Jackson Jr., born March 15, 1767 in Waxhams, North Carolina.
Andrew Jackson Sr. and Elizabeth made the difficult choice to uproot themselves, as well as their two children Hugh and Robert, to sail across the Atlantic to the American colonies in search of prosperity and opportunity. It is believed they arrived soon after their son Robert was born and settled in the town of Waxhams, on the border of North and South Carolina.
Life became very difficult for the Jackson family as their father, Andrew Sr. died shortly after Andrew Jr. was born. During his early childhood, Andrew Jr. received sporadic education and when the American Revolution began, the Jackson family made their allegiance known.
1. East Anglia to Massachusetts - The Exodus of the English Puritans (1629-41) Massachusetts stemmed from the Great Migration of English Puritans in 1630s, who were of middling and upper-middling means from the east of England ("East Anglian"), under an elite of Puritan ministers. This folkway was marked by relative homogeneity, stable families, older demographics, and a more balanced sex ratio. Fischer argues that it was essentially a conservative folkway that attempted to strive backwards for lost piety and had harsh institutional mechanisms for control. Finally, it was marked by several different conceptions of freedom, including spiritual freedom to focus on God, a collective liberty that restrained individuals, and more contemporary notion of liberty of protecting people from basic wants. (New England colonies)
2. The South of England to Virginia - Distressed Cavaliers & Indentured Servants (1642-75) Tidewater Virginia stemmed from the Royalist Cavaliers, who were loyal to the crown during the English Civil War in the 1640s and came from Southwest England (embodied by Governor William Berkeley). These elites were actively recruited and established a hegemonic stranglehold on the region, lording over a stratified society in which 75% were poor indentured servants. They followed the Anglican church and cherished their English cultural inheritance. They ordered their society in an extremely hierarchical manner following the Anglican church and institutionally deeply tied to the crown and systems of rank and status. They crafted an ideology of "hegemonic liberty," the power to rule over others and where liberties were not universal but divvied up according to rank. (Chesapeake Colonies)
3. North Midlands to the Delaware - The Friends' Migration (1675-1725) Delaware Valley stemmed from Quakers from northern England counties, whose ideological framework laid the ground for structuring one of the most pluralistic societies in the region. It was a culture that valued commerce and industry, and that ordered society according to keeping the peace between people rather trying to enforce unity or hierarchy. Political parties emerged fairly early on and centered on ethnic divisions. Finally, freedom centered on reciprocal (golden rule) liberty, religious liberty, and growing antislavery sentiment. (Middle Colonies)
4. Borderland to the Backcountry - The Flight from North Britain (1717-1775) The Southern Backcountry stemmed from England's northern borderlands of Ireland, northern England, and southern Scotland. It was a mixed, if largely impoverished group, led by the "Ascendancy" social class of English borderlands. Fischer argues that the "Scotch-Irish" label is a misnomer, and was much more mixed. Society was structured around a culture of retaliation and retribution, and politics that were marked by improvisation and personal leadership ("men of influence") like the future Andrew Jackson. Finally, its conception of freedom revolved around "natural liberty" that stressed personal autonomy from institutions. (Southern Colonies)