Germany has rarely been united. For most of the two millennia that Central Europe has been inhabited by German-speaking peoples, such as the Eastern Franks, the area now called Germany was divided into hundreds of states, many quite small, including duchies, principalities, free cities, and ecclesiastical states. Not even the Romans united what is now known as Germany under one government; they managed to occupy only its southern and western portions.
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1648 A.D. The Treaty of Westphalia is signed ending the Thirty Years' war and granting independence to all of the territorial states of the Holy Roman Empire.
1642-1645 A.D. The English Civil War
2017 The anniversary of the Reformation The anniversary year “500 years of the Reformation” will be celebrated worldwide.
1517 A.D. Martin Luther posts his 95 Theses on the door of the Wittenberg Castle church, leading to a split of German territories between Catholics and Protestants
Dresden Statue of Martin Luther
In A.D. 800 Charlemagne, who had been crowned Holy Roman emperor by Pope Leo III, ruled over a territory that encompassed much of present-day Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Switzerland, but within a generation its existence was more symbolic than real.